Shakespeare, Brecht, and the Intercultural Sign (Post-Contemporary Interventions)
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Sean Allan Kurt Maetzig also referred to this tendency of even the new writers to lapse into the melodramatic pathos of the Ufa cinema in his conference address.
Nonetheless, in urging writers to Christa Wolf. Rethinking Peter Weiss. Opera in History: From Monteverdi to Cage review. Prosa — Shakespeare, Brecht, and the Intercultural Sign. Antony Tat low Page 2. Shakespeare, Brecht, and the Intercultural Sign Page 3. Verwisch die Spuren! Dance and the Theatricality of Berlin School Cinema. Brecht developed the combined theory and practice of his " Epic theatre " by synthesizing and extending the experiments of Erwin Piscator and Vsevolod Meyerhold to explore the theatre as a forum for political ideas and the creation of a critical aesthetics of dialectical materialism.
Epic Theatre proposed that a play should not cause the spectator to identify emotionally with the characters or action before him or her, but should instead provoke rational self-reflection and a critical view of the action on the stage. Brecht thought that the experience of a climactic catharsis of emotion left an audience complacent. Instead, he wanted his audiences to adopt a critical perspective in order to recognise social injustice and exploitation and to be moved to go forth from the theatre and effect change in the world outside.
By highlighting the constructed nature of the theatrical event, Brecht hoped to communicate that the audience's reality was equally constructed and, as such, was changeable. Brecht's modernist concern with drama-as-a- medium led to his refinement of the " epic form " of the drama. This dramatic form is related to similar modernist innovations in other arts , including the strategy of divergent chapters in James Joyce 's novel Ulysses , Sergei Eisenstein 's evolution of a constructivist " montage " in the cinema, and Picasso 's introduction of cubist "collage" in the visual arts.
One of Brecht's most important principles was what he called the Verfremdungseffekt translated as "defamiliarization effect", "distancing effect", or "estrangement effect", and often mistranslated as "alienation effect". In contrast to many other avant-garde approaches, however, Brecht had no desire to destroy art as an institution; rather, he hoped to " re-function " the theatre to a new social use. Brechtian theatre articulated popular themes and forms with avant-garde formal experimentation to create a modernist realism that stood in sharp contrast both to its psychological and socialist varieties.
Brecht was also influenced by Chinese theatre, and used its aesthetic as an argument for Verfremdungseffekt. Brecht believed, "Traditional Chinese acting also knows the alienation [sic] effect, and applies it most subtly. The [Chinese] performer portrays incidents of utmost passion, but without his delivery becoming heated.
He recognized that the Chinese style was not a "transportable piece of technique,"  and that Epic theatre sought to historicize and address social and political issues. Brecht used his poetry to criticize European culture, including Nazis , and the German bourgeoisie. Brecht's poetry is marked by the effects of the First and Second World Wars. Throughout his theatric production, poems are incorporated into this plays with music.
In , Brecht issued a recantation of his apparent suppression of poetry in his plays with a note titled On Poetry and Virtuosity. He writes:. We shall not need to speak of a play's poetry It seemed not only unimportant, but misleading, and the reason was not that the poetic element had been sufficiently developed and observed, but that reality had been tampered with in its name Such works and performances may have some effect, but it can hardly be a profound one, not even politically.
For it is a peculiarity of the theatrical medium that it communicates awarenesses and impulses in the form of pleasure: the depth of the pleasure and the impulse will correspond to the depth of the pleasure.
Borrowers and Lenders: The Journal of Shakespeare and Appropriation
Brecht's most influential poetry is featured in his Manual of Piety Devotions , establishing him as a noted poet. Brecht's widow, the actress Helene Weigel , continued to manage the Berliner Ensemble until her death in ; it was primarily devoted to performing Brecht's plays.
Besides being an influential dramatist and poet, some scholars have stressed the significance of Brecht's original contributions in political and social philosophy. Brecht's collaborations with Kurt Weill have had some influence in rock music. The " Alabama Song " for example, originally published as a poem in Brecht's Hauspostille and set to music by Weill in Mahagonny , has been recorded by The Doors , on their self-titled debut album, as well as by David Bowie and various other bands and performers since the s.
Brecht's son, Stefan Brecht , became a poet and theatre critic interested in New York's avant-garde theatre. Brecht's plays were a focus of the Schauspiel Frankfurt when Harry Buckwitz was general manager, including the world premiere of Die Gesichte der Simone Machard in Collective and collaborative working methods were inherent to Brecht's approach, as Fredric Jameson among others stresses.
Jameson describes the creator of the work not as Brecht the individual, but rather as 'Brecht': a collective subject that "certainly seemed to have a distinctive style the one we now call 'Brechtian' but was no longer personal in the bourgeois or individualistic sense.
This is "theatre as collective experiment [ Brecht wrote hundreds of poems throughout his life. His poetry was influenced by folk-ballads, French chansons , and the poetry of Rimbaud and Villon. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Brecht disambiguation. Playwright theatre director poet. Epic theatre non-Aristotelian drama.
Marianne Zoff m. Helene Weigel m. For us, man portrayed on the stage is significant as a social function. It is not his relationship to himself, nor his relationship to God, but his relationship to society which is central. Whenever he appears, his class or social stratum appears with him. His moral, spiritual or sexual conflicts are conflicts with society. Erst kommt das Fressen Dann kommt die Moral. First the grub lit. Unhappy the land where heroes are needed. The Catch Der Fischzug ? Was kostet das Eisen? Random House. Oxford University Press.
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See also Smith Wedekind had worked as a ballad singer; he accompanied himself on the lute. Kutscher was "bitterly critical" of Brecht's own early dramatic writings Willet and Manheim , vii. Quoted in Willett and Manheim , viii—ix. See the article on Edward II for details of Brecht's germinal 'epic' ideas and techniques in this production. See Sacks , xviii , Willett , , and Willett and Manheim , vii. At the end of the — season, both his and Carl Zuckmayer 's his fellow dramaturg contracts were not renewed.
Willett , Zuckmayer relates how: "Brecht seldom turned up there; with his flapping leather jacket he looked like a cross between a lorry driver and a Jesuit seminarist. Roughly speaking, what he wanted was to take over complete control; the season's programme must be regulated entirely according to his theories, and the stage be rechristened 'epic smoke theatre', it being his view that people might actually be disposed to think if they were allowed to smoke at the same time.
As this was refused him he confined himself to coming and drawing his pay. In his book The Political Theatre , Piscator wrote: "Perhaps my whole style of directing is a direct result of the total lack of suitable plays. It would certainly not have taken so dominant form if adequate plays had been on hand when I started" , Brecht claimed to have written the adaptation in his Journal entry , but Piscator contested that; the manuscript bears the names "Brecht, [Felix] Gasbarra, Piscator , G.
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Grosz " in Brecht's handwriting Willett , See also Willett , 90— Brecht wrote a sequel to the novel in , Schweik in the Second World War. In relation to his innovations in the use of theatre technology, Piscator wrote: "technical innovations were never an end in themselves for me. Any means I have used or am currently in the process of using were designed to elevate the events on the stage onto a historical plane and not just to enlarge the technical range of the stage machinery.