Making British Indian Fictions: 1772-1823 (Palgrave Studies in Cultural and Intellectual History)
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Don't have a Kindle? Review 'This book revisits postcolonial scholarship from the s the work of scholars such as Bart Moore-Gilbert, Felicity Nussbaum, Balachandra Rajan, Sara Suleri, and Kate Teltscher to argue that British literature and cultural life was transformed by Britain's colonial interactions with India.
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Back to top. The Underground, the oldest part of which dates to , operates 20 hours per day and is comprised of stations on 11 lines that provide 2. In early the government proposed privatizing London's subway system because of lack of funds needed to restore the aging network. Capital investment has been diminished since the s, resulting in increasing failures of signals and rolling stock and the deterioration of stations and track. Great Britain has about 3, km 1, mi of navigable inland waterways, mainly canals dating back to the pre-railroad age, of which as of , some km mi are still in commercial use.
Great Britain has some ports, including the Port of London, one of the largest in the world. In an effort to curb the flagging of British merchant ships to less regulatory foreign nations, a British offshore registry program was initiated in the late s.
Under this program, merchant ships registered to the Isle of Man, Gibraltar, the Cayman Islands , and the Turks and Caicos Islands are entitled to fly the Red Ensign as if under the administration of the United Kingdom. The Civil Aviation Authority was created in as an independent body responsible for national airline operations, traffic control, and air safety.
In , there were an estimated airports. As of a total of had paved runways, and there were also 11 heliports. In , BA was reestablished as British Airways PLC , a public limited company under government ownership, soon thereafter to be sold wholly to the public. There are a number of privately operated airlines, some of which operate air taxi services.
British Caledonian, which maintained scheduled flights on both domestic and international routes, merged with British Airways in In , the United Kingdom's airlines performed 5, million freight ton-km of freight service, and carried The earliest people to occupy Britain are of unknown origin.
Remains of these early inhabitants include the stone circles of Avebury and Stonehenge in Wiltshire. Celtic tribes from the Continent, the first known settlers in historical times, invaded before the 6th century bc. The islands were visited in ancient times by Mediterranean traders seeking jet, gold, pearls, and tin, which were being mined in Cornwall. Julius Caesar invaded in 55 bc but soon withdrew.
In the 1st century ad, the Romans occupied most of the present-day area of England, remaining until the 5th century. With the decline of the Roman Empire and the withdrawal of Roman troops although many Romans had become Britonized and remained on the islands , Celtic tribes fought among themselves, and Scots and Picts raided from the north and from Ireland. Early raids by Angles, Saxons, and Jutes from the Continent soon swelled into invasions, and the leaders established kingdoms in the conquered territory while the native Celts retreated into the mountains of Wales and Cornwall.
Although the Welsh were split into a northern and a southern group, they were not permanently subdued. Among the new English kingdoms, that of the West Saxons Wessex became predominant, chiefly through the leadership of Alfred the Great, who also had to fight a new wave of invasions by the Danes and other Norsemen. Alfred's successors were able to unify the country, but eventually the Danes completed their conquest, and King Canute II of Denmark became ruler of England by In , with the expiration of the Scandinavian line, Edward the Confessor of Wessex became king. At his death in , both Harold the Saxon and William, duke of Normandy, claimed the throne.
The latter's death in brought a period of civil war and anarchy, which ended with the accession of Henry II , who instituted notable constitutional and legal reforms. He and succeeding English kings expanded their holdings in France, touching off a long series of struggles between the two countries. Long-standing conflict between the nobles and the kings reached a climax in the reign of King John with the victory of the barons, who at Runnymede in compelled the king to grant the Magna Carta.
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This marked a major advance toward the parliamentary system. Just half a century later, in , Simon de Montfort , earl of Leicester, leader of the barons in their opposition to Henry III , summoned the first Parliament, with representatives not only of the rural nobility but also of the boroughs and towns.
In the late 13th century, Edward I expanded the royal courts and reformed the legal system; he also began the first systematic attempts to conquer Wales and Scotland. In , the last Welsh king, Llewellyn ap Gruffydd, was killed in battle, and Edward I completed the conquest of Wales. Two years later, the Statute of Rhuddlan established English rule. The spirit of resistance survived, however, and a last great uprising against England came in the early 15th century, when Owen Glendower Owain ap Gruffydd led a briefly successful revolt.
Scotland was inhabited in early historic times by the Picts and by roaming bands of Gaels, or Celts, from Ireland. Before the Romans left Britain in the 5th century, Scotland had been converted to Christianity by St. Ninian and his disciples. By the end of the following century, four separate kingdoms had been established in Scotland. Norsemen raided Scotland from the 8th to the 12th century, and some settled there. Most of the country was unified under Duncan I r. His son, Malcolm III r. Under David I r. William the Lion r.
Although Scotland purchased its freedom from Richard I , the ambiguous wording of the agreement allowed later English kings to revive their claim. Edward began a war with Philip of France and demanded Scottish troops, but the Scots allied themselves with Philip, beginning the long relationship with France that distinguishes Scottish history. Edward subdued the Scots, put down an uprising led by William Wallace, executed Wallace in , and established English rule.
Baliol's heir was killed by Robert the Bruce, another claimant, who had himself crowned , captured Edinburgh, and defeated Edward II of England decisively at Bannockburn in The plague, known as the Black Death , broke out in England in , wiping out a third of the population; it hastened the breakdown of the feudal system and the rise of towns. The 14th century was for England a time of confusion and change. John Wycliffe led a movement of reform in religion, spreading radical ideas about the need for churchly poverty and criticizing many established doctrines and practices.
A peasant rebellion led by Wat Tyler in demanded the abolition of serfdom, monopolies, and the many restrictions on buying and selling.
The war with France continued, commerce flourished, and the wool trade became important. The Wars of the Roses — 85 , in which the houses of Lancaster and York fought for the throne, ended with the accession of Henry VII , a member of the Tudor family, marking the beginning of the modern history of England. Under the Tudors, commerce was expanded, English seamen ranged far and wide, and clashes with Spain accelerated by religious differences intensified.
Earlier English dominance had not had much effect on Wales, but the Tudors followed a policy of assimilation, anglicizing Welsh laws and practices. After his death , the succession to the throne became a major issue during the reigns of Edward VI — 53 , Mary I — 58 , and Elizabeth I — In Scotland, James I r. His murder in began a century of civil conflict. James IV r. French influence in Scotland grew under James V r. After James's death, Mary ruled as regent for her daughter, Mary, Queen of Scots, who had married the dauphin of France, where she lived as dauphiness and later as queen.
By the time Mary returned to Scotland , after the death of her husband, most of the Scots were Protestants.
Making British Indian Fictions
A pro-English faction had the support of Queen Elizabeth I against the pro-French faction, and Mary, who claimed the throne of England, was imprisoned and executed by Elizabeth. Under Elizabeth, England in acquired its first colony, Newfoundland, and in defeated the Spanish Armada ; it also experienced the beginning of a golden age of drama, literature, and music, among whose towering achievements are the plays of William Shakespeare.
Under James and his son, Charles I r. In the English Civil War , which broke out in , Charles was supported by the Welsh, who had remained overwhelmingly Catholic in feeling, but most Scots opposed him. Charles was tried and executed in , and Oliver Cromwell as Protector ruled the new Commonwealth until his death in Cromwell ruthlessly crushed uprisings in Ireland and suppressed the Welsh. In , Charles II, eldest son of the executed king, regained the throne.
The Restoration was marked by a reaction against Puritanism, by persecution of the Scottish Covenanters Presbyterians , by increased prosperity, and by intensified political activity; during this period, Parliament managed to maintain many of its gains. By this transfer of power, known to English history as the Glorious Revolution , the final supremacy of Parliament was established.
Supporters of James II Jacobites in Scotland and Ireland, aided by France, sought to restore the deposed Stuart line, but their insurrection was suppressed in at the Battle of the Boyne , fought on the banks of the Irish river of that name. In Wales, after Cromwell and the Commonwealth, the people began to turn to Calvinism; dissent grew, and such ministers as Griffith Jones, a pioneer in popular education, became national leaders. Most Welsh were won to the Calvinistic Methodist Church , which played a large part in fostering a nonpolitical Welsh nationalism.
A long struggle to disestablish the Church of England in Wales culminated successfully in a act of Parliament. English colonial expansion developed further in the 17th and 18th centuries, in competition with France and the Netherlands, while at the same time the English merchant marine gained commercial supremacy over the Dutch. The wars of the Grand Alliance — 97 and of the Spanish Succession — 14 consolidated Britain's overseas possessions.
At home, to ensure Scottish allegiance to England and prevent possible alliances with inimical countries, the Act of Union of Scotland and England was voted by the two parliaments in , thereby formally creating the kingdom of Great Britain under one crown and with a single Parliament composed of representatives of both countries. Scottish affairs eventually became the province of the secretary of state for Scotland, a member of the British cabinet. Nevertheless, a nationalist movement demanding independence for Scotland persists to this day.
The accession of George I of the House of Hanover in a great-grandson of James I saw the beginning of the modern cabinet system, with the king leaving much of the governing to his ministers. The 18th century was a time of rapid colonial and mercantile expansion abroad and internal stability and literary and artistic achievement at home.
Britain won control of North America and India in the Seven Years' War ended in by the Treaty of Paris , which also established British supremacy over the seas; however, the American Revolution — 83 cost Britain its most important group of colonies. A few years later, British settlement of Australia and then of New Zealand became key elements in the spreading British Empire.
Britain increased its power further by its leading role in the French Revolutionary Wars and in the defeat of Napoleon and French expansionist aims. The conquest of Ireland had never been consolidated; the Act of Union followed an Irish rebellion in after the failure of a demand for parliamentary reform. But although the act established Irish representation in Parliament, the Irish question continued to cause trouble throughout the 19th century.
Absentee landlordism, particularly in the 26 southern counties, fostered poverty and hatred of the English. Moreover, there was a growing division of interest between these counties and the six counties of the north, popularly called Ulster, where, early in the 17th century, Protestant Scots and English had settled on land confiscated by the British crown after a rebellion.
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While the north gradually became Protestant and industrial, the rest of Ireland remained Catholic and rural. With the introduction of the first Home Rule Bill in , the northern Irish, fearing domination by the southern Catholic majority, began a campaign that ended in the Government of Ireland Act, which established separate domestic legislatures for the north and south, as well as continued representation in the UK Parliament.